That starts with research and development. Here are four key ways digitalization is transforming R&D:
科技给予客商越多自由。最近用户已经持有及时和国家长期巩固的新闻，包蕴付加物、品质和价格 – 不论是你要么你的竞争对手。过去，假如你早正是有些世界的经营管理者，竞争者处于弱点。前几天，客户们精通你是什么在世界范围和对手们比赛的，你过去的商场领导者地位变得不着疼热。
Manufacturing. In manufacturing, processes are often complex, requiring hundreds or even thousands of steps, and mistakes are costly. As we’ve learned, AR can deliver just the right information the moment it’s needed to factory workers on assembly lines, reducing errors, enhancing efficiency, and improving productivity.
财富公司援助于将业务分流到偏远地区，如要求持续检查测验的油气田。财富行当近百分之五十的首席营业官(大约侵夺45%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)提议，他们或然在选定的行政单位实践了物联网，要么在其业务领域开展了周边的物联网安排。主要数据源包蕴机械安装(大概攻克60%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)和机器人(大略攻下52%卡塔尔(قطر。财富公司正转向用物联网来监督资金变现(大约吞并半数卡塔尔、提高顾客体验(大略占领43%卡塔尔和增加总体功效(大抵吞没二成卡塔尔(قطر。有七分之意气风发(大略攻下34%卡塔尔国的受访者表示，他们以往在铺子内部浓郁陈设了视觉分析。举例，安装在拍戏头上的无人驾驶飞机能够扶植公司监察和控制生产场所及设施的正规和拉萨，在格外情况成为危殆早先就意识它们。
4. Business processes are becoming more customer centric
In fact, 83% of executives believe digitalization is driving a shift from supply-side economies of scale to demand-side economies based on interconnection with customers and partners, according to the Accenture report.
Manufacturers will have to be more connected to customers, because new business models will demand it. Take the air compressor customer. It hasn’t invested in a capital-intensive air compressor; it’s simply contracted for compressed air. At the end of the contract, there’s little disincentive to switching to a more attractive contract. The same will be true for many products across many industries.
How does that change R&D? Design cycles will have to accelerate to maintain competitive differentiation. For example, most carmakers update a car’s electronics only if the customer happens to come in for service. Tesla has upped the ante by sending new features and functions directly to the consumer through regular software updates. Don’t be surprised if its competitors start to follow.
Ultimately, the digital economy begins and ends with the customer. Customers are more empowered, so companies need to become more customer-centric. And nowhere is that more true than in R&D.
For more insight on the new customer-centric digital economy, see Customer Relationship Status: It’s Complicated.
HOW AR CREATES VALUE
Many organizations are struggling to respond. In fact, only five percent of companies say they’ve mastered digital transformation to the point of competitive differentiation, according to Forrester.
AR applications are already being piloted and deployed in products and across the value chain, and their number and breadth will only grow. Every company needs an implementation road map that lays out how the organization will start to capture the benefits of AR in its business while building the capabilities needed to expand its use. When determining the sequence and pace of adoption, companies must consider both the technical challenges and the organizational skills involved, which vary from context to context. Specifically, organizations need to address five key questions:
AR as a product feature. The capabilities of AR play into the growing design focus on creating better user interfaces and ergonomics. The way products convey important operational and safety information to users has increasingly become a point of differentiation (consider how mobile apps have supplemented or replaced embedded screens in products like Sonos audio players). AR is poised to rapidly improve such interfaces.
AR will be far more widely applied in business than VR will. But in some circumstances, combining AR and VR will allow users to transcend distance (by simulating faraway locations), transcend time (by reproducing historical contexts or simulating possible future situations), and transcend scale (by allowing users to engage with environments that are either too small or too big to experience directly). What’s more, bringing people together in shared virtual environments can enhance comprehension, teamwork, communication, and decision making.
在零售中，销售上的情形并不囿于于发售——客商的作为和影响被切磋、评估和衍化。在核查中，有八分之四的零售业首席营业官(大概息灭四分之一卡塔尔表示，他们正在积极布署物联网专业——要么跨机构布置，要么跨公司大范围安排。大相当多人(大略攻下四分之一卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)也意味，在必然水平上利用了视觉解析，进而能够更加好地知道顾客的重视和行事。最有名的物联网数据源包涵计算机体系(大约攻克1/4卡塔尔(قطر和传感器(大抵攻克51%卡塔尔。对于零售组织，首要用例是启用业务转移(大略攻陷半数卡塔尔国和提供加强设想现实的作育(大略占领43%卡塔尔。
Dedicated AR heads-up displays, which have only recently been incorporated into automobiles, have been a key feature in elite military products, such as fighter jets, for years and have been adopted in commercial aircraft as well. These types of displays are too expensive and bulky to ntegrate into most products, but wearables such as smart glasses are a breakthrough interface with wide-ranging implications for all manufacturers. With mart glasses, a user can see an AR display on any product enabled to communicate with them.
After-sales service. This is a function where AR shows huge potential to unlock the value-creating capabilities of SCPs. AR assists technicians serving customers in the field in much the same way it helps workers in factories: by showing predictive analytics data generated by the product, visually guiding them through repairs in real time, and connecting them with remote experts who can help optimize procedures. For example, an AR dashboard might reveal to a field technician that a specific machine part will most likely fail within a month, allowing the tech to preempt a problem for the customer by replacing it now. At KPN, a European telecommunications service provider, field engineers conducting remote or on-site repairs use AR smart glasses to see a product’s service-history data, diagnostics, and location-based information dashboards. These AR displays help them make better decisions about demand through AR. AR allows instruction to be tailored to a particular worker’s experience or to reflect the prevalence of particular errors. For example, if someone repeatedly makes the same kind of mistake, he can be required to use AR support until his work quality improves. At some companies, AR has reduced the training time for new employees in certain kinds of work to nearly zero and lowered the skill requirements for new hires. This is especially advantageous for the package delivery company DHL, which faces surges in demand during peak seasons and is heavily dependent on the effective hiring and training of temporary workers. By providing real-time training and hands-on guidance on navigating warehouses and properly packing and sorting materials, AR has reduced how to resolve issues, producing an 11% reduction in overall costs for service teams, a 17% decrease in work-error rates, and higher repair quality.
2. Transparency is rewriting how manufacturers collaborate
Information access is changing the way manufacturers interact both internally and with suppliers. This is true for every function, but especially for R&D.
As R&D creates more smart products, the skills it requires are changing. The automotive industry is a case in point. Fifteen years ago, cars began to incorporate electronics such as engine-control systems. Today, electronics are where most automotive R&D is happening, and within 10 years, electronics will allow cars to pretty much drive themselves.
That dramatically changes how cars are designed. In the past, mechanical engineers led design efforts, and electronics were merely an add-on. Today, software development – with its very different requirements and design cycles – is integral to the process. In the automotive industry and in virtually every other industry, product design will involve new stakeholders who must work together in new ways.
Logistics. Warehouse operations are estimated to account for about 20% of all logistics costs, while picking items from shelves represents up to 5% of warehouse costs. In most warehouses, workers still perform this task by consulting a paper list of things to collect and then searching for them. This method is slow and error-prone.
核查开掘，金融服务、诊疗保养和创立业是物联网思维的带头羊。大多地方下，他们正将物联网品质与强盛的高等深入分析或人工智能联系起来。临近伍分之一的财政和经济服务业主管(大抵攻克52%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)表示，他们具有康健的物联网计划，其次是医疗机构(大概占领二分之一卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)。在创制业和经济服务业，物联网系统的增进不过强烈。这两个中，分别有56%和42%的正规化CEO表示，过去四年，他们的网络覆盖增速当先了一成。
Bosch Rexroth, a global provider of power units and controls used in manufacturing, uses an AR-enhanced visualization to demonstrate the design and capabilities of its smart, connected CytroPac hydraulic power unit. The AR application allows customers to see 3-D representations of the unit’s internal pump and cooling options in multiple configurations and how subsystems fit together.
1. End consumers are more empowered
Technology has put consumers in the driver’s seat. Customers now have instant, constant access to information about products, quality, and pricing – for both you and your competitors. In the past, if you had established yourself as a leader in a region, the competition was at a disadvantage. Today, customers know how you stack up against rivals around the world, and your past market leadership is irrelevant. This isn’t just a problem for sales and marketing. It’s also a problem for R&D, which must respond – in as near to real time as possible – to changing customer demands. The good news is that technology is also the solution. For example, by designing smart products that leverage Internet of Things (IoT) sensors, R&D can capture usage data to understand customer desires and capture performance data to learn how to improve products rapidly.
Instruction applications, like the ones Boeing and GE employ in manufacturing, are more difficult to build and use. They require the capacity to develop and maintain dynamic 3-D digital content and often benefit greatly from the use of headmounted displays or smart glasses, which are still in the early stages of development. Apps that produce interactive experiences, which create significant value for both consumers and businesses, are the most challenging to develop. They also involve less-mature technology, such as voice or gesture recognition, and the need to integrate with software that controls SCPs. Most companies will start with static visualizations of 3-D models, but they should build the capability to move quickly into dynamic instructional experiences that have greater strategic impact.
Fully one-quarter of the world’s economy will be digital by 2020, forecasts a new report from Accenture. But that prediction doesn’t tell the whole story. Because increasingly, all business processes will be not only digitized – converted from analog to digital – but also digitalized – transformed in a way that blurs the physical and virtual.
AR’S KEY CAPABILITIES
3. Business models are growing more flexible
In the past, product designers worked for companies that sold products. But increasingly, manufacturers will sell not products but services. That affects R&D in fundamental ways.
A good example is a midsize SAP client that makes industrial air compressors. Some years ago it realized customers wanted not air compressors but compressed air. So it began offering compressed air as a service. Before this time, it designed and manufactured air compressors and then sold them to customers. Now, it designs and manufactures air compressors, installs them at customer sites, and then charges for the compressed air customers consume.
That new business model changes how R&D develops products. First, it needs to design in IoT sensors to monitor the compressors in real time and enable predictive maintenance. Second, it needs to optimize longevity and ease of maintenance. One way the company achieves that is by having engineers regularly spend time with field service to see firsthand how equipment is performing.
While the advances in artificial intelligence and robotics are impressive, we believe that combining the capabilities of machines with humans’ distinctive strengths will lead to far greater productivity and more value creation than either could generate alone. What’s needed to realize this opportunity is a powerful human interface that bridges the gap between the digital and physical worlds. We see AR as a historic innovation that provides this. It helps humans enhance their own capabilities by taking full advantage of new digital knowledge and machine capabilities. It will profoundly change training and skill development, allowing people to perform sophisticated work without protracted and expensive conventional instruction—a model that is inaccessible to so many today. AR, then, enables people to better tap into the digital revolution and all it has to offer.
Growth in IoT systems has been most pronounced within the manufacturing and financial services sectors, with 47% and 42% of executives in these sectors, respectively, reporting growth in their networks exceeding 10% over the past three years.
The challenge is especially acute for manufacturers. From innovation to production to logistics, manufacturers are seeing their operations revolutionized by digital technologies.
BY MICHAEL E. PORTER AND JAMES E. HEPPELMANN
金融服务机构全体惊人安全意识，由此更是正视互联网录像头和其他视觉传感器，以保障其设施的取向。如上所述，金融服务在物联网布署方面处于当先地位，53%的应用钻探对象具有一定水平的技术。在视觉解析应用地点，这一天地的商店也远远超过——三分之二的商城告诉说，他们早就开采并贯彻了将摄像头和视觉传感器连接到人工智能和剖判系统上的才具。对金融集团来说，手提式无线电话机是首选的极点设备(约44%的选择访谈者选择了手提式有线电话机卡塔尔国，还会有录像头和传感器(大抵侵夺50%卡塔尔。尽管经活佛司在物联网专业中有多个对象，但无人不晓首先要解决的是扩展互联网连通性(大约并吞31%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)，并将物联网作为抓牢安全性的工具(大抵吞并三分之一卡塔尔(قطر。
In this article we describe what AR is, its evolving technology and applications, and why it is so important. Its significance will grow exponentially as SCPs proliferate, because it amplifies their power to create value and reshape competition. AR will become the new interface between humans and machines, bridging the digital and physical worlds. While challenges in deploying it remain, pioneering organizations, such as Amazon, Facebook, General Electric, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Navy, are already implementing AR and seeing a major impact on quality and productivity. Here we provide a road map for how companies should deploy AR and explain the critical choices they will face in integrating it into strategy and operations.
6.Retail: In retail, what happens on the sales floor doesn’t stay on the sales floor—customer behavior and reactions are studied, evaluated and evolved. Half of the retail executives in the survey, 51%, report having robust IoT efforts underway—either deployed across departments or extensively across their enterprises. A majority, 53%, also report employing visual analytics to some degree, enabling a greater understanding of customer preferences and behavior. The most prominent IoT data sources include computer systems (51%) and sensors (47%). For retail organizations, the main use cases are enabling business transformation (44%) and providing training enhanced by augmented virtual reality (43%).
AR also lets engineers superimpose CAD models on physical prototypes to compare how well they match. Volkswagen is using this technique—which makes any difference between the latest design and the prototype visually obvious—to check alignment in digital design reviews. This improves the accuracy of the quality assurance process, in which engineers previously had to painstakingly compare 2-D drawings with prototypes, and makes it five to 10 times faster.
As these examples demonstrate, every industry has the potential to reap the benefits from IoT. Yet it’s up to executives to recognize the potential of these technologies and determine how best to leverage them within their companies and respective industries. Those who do will certainly reap the rewards.
Xerox used AR to connect field engineers with experts instead of providing service manuals and telephone support. First-time fix rates increased by 67%, and the engineers’ efficiency jumped by 20%. Meanwhile, the average time it took to resolve problems dropped by two hours, so staffing needs fell. Now Xerox is using AR to connect remote technical experts directly with customers. This has increased by 76% the rate at which technical problems are resolved by customers without any on-site help, cutting travel costs for Xerox and minimizing downtime for customers. Perhaps not surprisingly, Xerox has seen its customer satisfaction rates rise to 95%.
7.Transportation: Transportation is about movement and logistics, and IoT systems are playing a role in managing these capabilities. About half of the executives in the survey in transportation-related organizations, 47%, report having either departmental-level IoT efforts underway or implementations that reach across their enterprises. The most important use cases are increasing productivity (40%) as well as logistics monitoring and routing (40%). Close to half of transportation companies, 46%, have some level of visual analytics incorporated into their IoT efforts. Cameras and sensors, for example, may be placed along railroad tracks to monitor wear and tear on wheel assemblies or anomalies with freight cars.
Marketing and sales. AR is redefining the concept of showrooms and product demonstrations and transforming the customer experience. When customers can see virtually how products will look or function in a real setting before buying them, they have more-accurate expectations, more confidence about their purchase decisions, and greater product satisfaction. Down the road, AR may even reduce the need for brick-and-mortar stores and showrooms altogether. When products can be configured with different features and options—which can make them difficult and costly to stock—AR is a particularly valuable marketing tool.
2.Energy: Energy companies tend to have operations spread across remote locations such as oil and gas fields, which require continuous monitoring. Close to half of executives in the energy sector, 47%, indicate they either have implemented IoT across selected functions/business areas or have extensive IoT deployments. Leading data sources include machinery (49%) and robots (46%). Energy companies are turning to IoT to monitor asset performance (45%), enhance their customers’ experience (43%) and boost overall efficiency (40%). About one-third, 34%, report they have deployed visual analytics deeply within their enterprises. Camera-mounted drones, for instance, can help companies monitor the health and safety of production fields and facilities, spotting anomalies before they become a hazard.
Interact. Traditionally, people have used physical controls such as buttons, knobs, and, more recently, built-in touchscreens to interact with products. With the rise of SCPs, apps on mobile devices have increasingly replaced physical controls and allowed users to operate products remotely.
There is no single way to describe the Internet of Things (IoT)—it varies by industry, both in types of systems and in use cases. IoT in one sector is different from IoT in another. To better understand just how IoT is impacting a variety of industries, Forbes Insights, in partnership with Intel, conducted a survey of 700 executives familiar with their organization's implementation of IoT programs.
- Should the company make AR design and deployment a core strength, or will outsourcing or partnering be sufficient? Many firms are scrambling to access the digital talent needed for AR development, which is in short supply. One skill in great demand is user experience or user interface (UX/UI) design. It’s critical to present 3-D digital information in ways that make it easy to absorb and act on; companies want to avoid making a stunning but unhelpful AR experience that defeats its core purpose. Effective AR experiences also require the right content, so people who know how to create and manage it—another novel skill—are crucial too. Digital modeling capabilities and knowledge of how to apply them in AR applications are key as well. Over time we expect companies to create teams dedicated to AR, just as they set up such teams to build and run websites in the 1990s and 2000s. Dedicated teams will be needed to establish the infrastructure that will allow this new medium to flourish and to develop and maintain the AR content. Many firms have started to build AR skills in-house, but few have mastered them yet. Whether to hire and train AR employees or partner with specialty software and services companies is an open question for many. Some companies have no choice but to treat AR talent as a strategic asset and invest in acquiring and developing it, given AR’s potentially large impact on competition in their business. However, if AR is important but not essential to competitive advantage, firms can partner with specialty software and services companies to leverage outside talent and technology.
事关医治保健，顾客忧郁尤甚，他们盼望不止在病榻前受到照管，并且在候诊室、急救室和商务办公都能拿到对应体验。当前，医治机构在物联网方面也走在了前线，三分之一的治疗机构已经配备了一定完美的设备。在医治领域，音频设备和移动电话是最爱护的施用中装置，60%的行当选取媒体人都涉嫌了那或多或少。医生和医护人员囚禁是最普及的用例(大抵侵吞41%卡塔尔(قطر，还应该有配备监察和增进客商体验感(大抵攻陷38%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)。对多数接待上访来讲（大略占有1/3），他们依旧利用视觉解析来加强客商服务和护理病患的程度。
Instruct and guide. AR is already redefining instruction, training, and coaching. These critical functions, which improve workforce productivity, are inherently costly and labor-intensive and often deliver uneven results. Written instructions for assembly tasks, for instance, are frequently hard and timeconsuming to follow. Standard instructional videos aren’t interactive and can’t adapt to individual learning needs. In-person training is expensive and requires students and teachers to meet at a common site, sometimes repeatedly. And if the equipment about which students are being taught isn’t available, they may need extra training to transfer what they’ve learned to a real-world context.
对于邮电通信承包商和此外通讯公司以来，移动革命彰显了物联网的转型。在参加侦察的通信集团中，约有四分之二(大略侵夺47%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)的小卖部如故在工艺流程中贮存物联网，要么在注重作业领域中放置物联网。在通讯公司，最广大的物联网数据源饱含音频设备(大约攻陷46%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)，其次是移动电话(大概占有42%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)。最为平淡无奇的接收是堤防性维护(大约占领49%卡塔尔(英语：State of Qatar)，其次是努力升高工作者生产力(大概占有十分之四卡塔尔(قطر。别的，超越伍分之豆蔻梢头的通信经销商在行使Computer视觉和剖析本领以更加好地通晓、预测客商行为甚至基金趋势方面处于抢先地位，约38%的选用报事人表示，他们已经在小卖部的各机构间完毕了可视化分析。
How should organizations create digital content? Every AR experience, from the least to the most sophisticated, requires content. In some cases it’s possible to repurpose existing digital content, such as product designs. Over time, however, more-complex, dynamic contextual experiences must be built from scratch, which requires specialized expertise. Simple applications, such as an ARenhanced furniture catalog, may need only basic product representations. More-sophisticated business instruction applications, however, such as those used for machine repair, will require accurate and highly detailed digital product representations. Companies can create these by adapting CAD models used in product development or by using digitization techniques such as 3-D scanning. The most sophisticated AR experiences also need to tap real-time data streams from enterprise business systems, SCPs, or external data sources and integrate them into the content. To prepare for broadening the AR portfolio, companies should take an inventory of existing 3-D digital assets in CAD and elsewhere and invest in digital modeling capabilities.
How will AR applications recognize the physical environment? To accurately superimpose digital information on the physical world, AR technologies must recognize what they’re looking at. The simplest approach is to determine the location of the AR device using, say, GPS and show relevant information for that location without anchoring it to a specific object. This is known as an “unregistered” AR experience. Vehicle heads-up navigation displays typically work this way. Higher-value “registered” experiences anchor information to specific objects. They can do this through markers, such as bar codes, logos, or labels, which are placed on the objects and scanned by the user with an AR device. A more powerful approach, however, uses technology that recognizes objects by comparing their shape to a catalog of 3-D models. This allows a maintenance technician, for example, to instantly recognize and interact with any type of equipment he or she is responsible for maintaining and to do so from any angle. While markers are a good starting point, shape-recognition technologies are advancing quickly, and organizations will need the capability to use them to tap into many of the highest-value AR applications.
What AR hardware is required? AR experiences aimed at broad consumer audiences have typically been designed for smartphones, taking advantage of their simplicity and ubiquity. For moresophisticated experiences, companies use tablets, which offer larger screens, better graphics, and greater processing power. Since tablet penetration is lower, companies will often provide them to users. For certain high-value applications—notably those in aircraft and automobiles—manufacturers are building dedicated AR heads-up displays into their products—a costly approach.
How IoT Is Impacting 7 Key Industries Today
Human resources. Early AR adopters like DHL, the U.S. Navy, and Boeing have already discovered the power of delivering step-by-step visual worker training on DHL’s need for traditional instructors and increased the onboarding speed for new employees.
In e-commerce, AR applications are allowing online shoppers to download holograms of products. Wayfair and IKEA both offer libraries with thousands of 3-D product images and apps that integrate them into a view of an actual room, enabling customers to see how furniture and decor will look in their homes. IKEA also uses its app to collect important data about product preferences in different regions.
Product development. Though engineers have been using computeraided design (CAD) capabilities to create 3-D models for 30 years, they have been limited to interacting with those models through 2-D windows on their computer screens, which makes it harder for them to fully conceptualize designs. AR allows 3-D models to be superimposed on the physical world as holograms, enhancing engineers’ ability to evaluate and improve designs. For example, a life-size 3-D hologram of a construction machine can be positioned on the ground, and engineers can walk around it, peer under and over it, and even go inside it to fully appreciate the sight lines and ergonomics of its design at full scale in its intended setting.